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Historical background

At the end of the 50’s, unknown insurance issues arose with the emerging nuclear industry: unknown risks, high exposure and a low number of nuclear installations led insurers to exclude nuclear risks in their "conventional” insurance policies.

At the same time, the operators’ liability was ruled by a specific regime: the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 which instituted an exclusive and absolute liability channelled on the operator, limited in time and amount, and subject to a compulsory financial guarantee.

In France, the Act of 30 October 1968 as modified, has transposed these principles in its jurisdictional system.
In order to respond to the operators’ needs, insurers developed specific liability covers in respect of nuclear risks which could be managed by the pools.